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Data Models

In Agile Toolkit Views can interact with various Data Sources through Models. Model is a class implementing Active Record and ORM as well as holding meta-data for the objects.

One Model instance


Quick Example if you are familiar with ORM principles:

// Definition

class Model_User extends Model_SQL {
    function init(){


class Model_Order extends Model_SQL {
    function init(){


    function ship(){

        $address = $this->ref('user_id')['address'];

        // .. do hard work ..

        $this['is_shipped'] = true;

// Usage


$m->addCondition('is_shipped', false);

foreach($m as $order) {
    echo "Shipping order ".$m;
    $m->ship();   // calling custom method

Model Explained

Model is an object which creates a flexible API for your software to interract with physical data storage without knowing details about the specifics of data layer. In other words:

  • Models allow you to use most of MySQL features without SQL language.
  • Models allow you to use most of MongoDB features without using their API directly.
  • Any REST API can be used as a model source.
  • Models can work with arrays, session, filesystem etc
  • Models support transparent caching
  • You can extend by adding new data sources for a model

If you intend to work with any data, you should learn to use Models.

Further Reading

Agile Toolkit model implementation can set up their capabilities depending on Data Source. For example if your model is using setSource('Mongo'), you will be able to use conditions, iteration and some other features supported by mongo. If you are using setSource('Memcache'), features like listing and conditions will not be available.

Model implementation in 4.3 and 4.2

Models were initially introduced in Agile Toolkit 3.9 and then they were greatly improved in the subsequent releases. Most of the time it has been done without major impact on the usage pattern and

You must understand that there are two types of models - Relational and Non-Relational (or NoSQL) and that Model_Table (relational) extends the other. To most of the User Interface both classes are compatible, however both model implementation use a very different way to interact with data.

Before we can understand Relational Models, we must first look into the implementation of the DSQL layer. Models are described in the further chapters.

Connecting to the database

To connect to the database you need to call App_CLI::dbConnect from the init() method of your application class. This method to work without any arguments. You will have to specify DSN (connection info) in config.php file:

$config['dsn'] = 'mysql://root:root@';

The following video ( will walk you through a basic set-up of a database.